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Read e-book online Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image PDF

By L. Reimer, H. Kohl

ISBN-10: 0387400931

ISBN-13: 9780387400938

Transmission Electron Microscopy offers the speculation of photograph and distinction formation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy. the foundations of particle and wave optics of electrons are defined. Electron-specimen interactions are mentioned for comparing the speculation of scattering and part distinction. additionally mentioned are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their purposes for crystal-structure research and imaging of lattices and their defects. X-ray micronanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are handled as analytical tools. Specimen harm and infection by means of electron irradiation limits the solution for organic and a few inorganic specimens. This 5th variation contains dialogue of modern development, specially within the quarter of aberration corrector, and effort filtering; furthermore the hot themes of the fourth version were up to date back.

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Read or Download Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, 5th ed. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 36) PDF

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Extra resources for Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, 5th ed. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 36)

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The surface can be imaged by one of the SEM modes to select the specimen points to be analyzed. An SEM or x-ray microanalyzer can be equipped with an Auger-electron spectrometer of the cylindrical mirror type, for example. It is then necessary to work with an ultrahigh vacuum in the specimen chamber because Auger electrons are extremely sensitive to the state of the surface: A few atomic layers are sufficient to halt them. Special Auger-electron microanalyzers have therefore been developed in which the 1–10 keV electron gun may, for example, be incorporated in the inner cylinder of a spectrometer.

Coma-free alignment is based on the nonlinear relation between displacement and beam tilt. The displacements can be measured by seeking the maximum of the cross-correlation (Sect. 5). For coma-free alignment, five images have to be recorded: one without and four with equal but oppositely tilted beams, for example. 1 mrad and that of focusing and stigmation better than 3 nm at M = 500 000. 3 Wave Optics of Electrons A de Broglie wavelength can be attributed to each accelerated particle, and the propagation of electrons can be described by means of the concept of a wave packet.

5. The variable φ varies from π for z = −∞ to φ = π/2 for z = 0 and then to φ = 0 for z = +∞. 36) becomes y (φ) + 2cotφ y (φ) + k 2 y(φ) = 0. 39) of the two particular integrals u(φ) = sin(ωφ)/ sin φ, w(φ) = cos(ωφ)/ sin φ with ω= 1 + k2 . 40) The coefficients C1 and C2 can be determined from the initial conditions. Thus, for a parallel incident ray, the initial conditions are r = r0 for z = −∞ Fig. 5. Angular coordinate φ for the calculation of electron trajectories and lens parameters. 26 2 Particle Optics of Electrons Fig.

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Transmission Electron Microscopy: Physics of Image Formation, 5th ed. (Springer Series in Optical Sciences 36) by L. Reimer, H. Kohl

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