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Andy Christian's Petrochemical Processes 2010 PDF

By Andy Christian

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The partially reformed gas enters the secondary reformer (4) where air (5) is injected, and the methane is finally converted to syngas. In this unit, Casale supplies its high-efficiency process burner, characterized by low P and a short flame. The reformed gas is cooled by generating high-pressure (HP) steam, and then it enters the shift section (6), where CO reacts with steam to form hydrogen and CO2. There are two shift converters, the high-temperature shift and low-temperature shift; both are designed according to the unique axial-radial Casale design for catalyst beds, ensuring a low ∆P, lower catalyst volume, longer catalyst life and less expensive pressure vessels.

All rights reserved. Ammonia—Dual pressure process, continued is achieved by combination of the chilled second casing of the syngas compressor and a slightly elevated front-end pressure. Liquid ammonia is separated by condensation from the once through section, and the synthesis loop and is either subcooled and routed to storage, or conveyed at moderate temperature to subsequent consumers. Ammonia flash and purge gases are treated in a scrubbing system and a hydrogen recovery unit (not shown), the remaining gases being used as fuel.

Crude acrylic acid (CAA) is separated from the solvents by distillation. The overhead vapor is condensed in an internal thermoplate condenser. The two-phase condensate is separated. The organic phase is recycled. The aqueous phase is sent to the raffinate stripper (5). The column bottom, mostly AA and acetic acid, is routed to the CAA separator (4). Crude AA recovery (4): In this section, two columns work together to separate solvent and acetic acid from the CAA. The CAA separator produces a concentrated AA bottoms stream.

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Petrochemical Processes 2010 by Andy Christian


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