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Read e-book online Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Volume 1 PDF

By Paul O.P. Ts'o (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0127019014

ISBN-13: 9780127019017

ISBN-10: 0127019022

ISBN-13: 9780127019024

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Additional resources for Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Volume 1

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These variations probably are related to differences in gene redundancy, which will be discussed later. 3 x 105 for pox virus, a range of about 400fold [141]. The simplest viruses are thought to have 3 to 5 genes. DNA con­ tent of mitochondria varies from 5 x 104 (beef heart) to 1-2 x 105 (mouse, rat liver, chicken liver) to 1 x 106 in mung bean and turnip. Thus, the DNA content of mitochondria is similar to that of viruses, while the DNA content 40 Paul O. P. 3 x 107 for E. coli B). 8 x 107 for yeast) are larger than those of the prokaryotic bacteria in general [141].

From this analysis, the first conclusion is that various proteins have different rates of mutation during evolution. 06 [128]. In other words, in the course of 100 million years, cytochrome c, being a slow changer, had a 3% change in amino acid composition. In terms of species, the cytochromes c of cow, pig, and sheep are identical, as are those of chicken and turkey, and those of man and chimpanzee [129]. It should be noted that the rate of change in sequence of a particular protein is not necessarily the same throughout the entire evolution; for cytochromes c, the protein in mammals appears to have varied 39°/0 faster than in birds, and 48 % faster in vertebrates than in inverte­ brates [129].

Ts'o 34 dynamic state, such an organization has solved the contradiction imposed upon it in a static state. No longer is it subjected to an inevitable decay nor limited by a rigid form. All this is made possible through the expenditure of energy. Therefore, in the final analysis from another viewpoint, a living system is a dynamic organization through which energy becomes "structures" continuously. " Most, if not all, investigators of molecular evolution believe in the inevi­ tability of the evolution of life as exemplified by the work of Eigen [119] described above, and the discussion in the book entitled Biochemical Predestination by Kenyon and Steinman [66].

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Basic Principles in Nucleic Acid Chemistry. Volume 1 by Paul O.P. Ts'o (Eds.)

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