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By Richard G. Wax, Kim Lewis, Abigail A. Salyers, Harry Taber

ISBN-10: 0824706358

ISBN-13: 9780824706357

Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA. Examines equipment utilized by micro organism to boost resistance to antimicrobial brokers, and describes options that may be utilized to create powerful antibiotics and methods to reduce the emergence and international unfold of refractory traces. Highlights antibiotic resistance in pathogens posing the best chance to human healthiness.

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The tetQ gene was located on a conjugative transposon. This high level of carriage of both tetQ and the element that transfers it, in the absence of antibiotic selection, indicates not only that the conjugative transposon that carries it is readily acquired but also that it is stably maintained under natural conditions. Another possible explanation for the maintenance of a resistance gene in the absence of the corresponding antibiotic is that the resistance Copyright 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc.

A transmissible plasmid was followed in the intestines of mice that had a normal microflora from which the Lactobacillus species had been selectively ‘‘deleted’’ with antibiotics so that isogenic donor and recipient Lactobacillus strains could be introduced. In this case, transfer was detected within weeks. In another experiment, germ-free mice were colonized with a donor and recipient from different genera (25). Again, a conjugal element was used. Transfer events were detected after long periods but the frequency was very low.

A special situation appears when the acquired resistance genes become integrated in the chromosome, hampering their identification. This is well illustrated by the mecA determinant of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The mecA DNA sequence appears only in MRSA strains and it seems to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from coagulase-negative staphylococci. A similarly interesting situation occurs in the streptococci and Neisseria where an acquired penicillinbinding protein gene (pbp2), or a DNA fragment thereof, recombines with the pbp2 gene of the host to generate a mosaic gene encoding a protein that retains normal cell wall function but no longer binds penicillin effectively (16,17).

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Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials by Richard G. Wax, Kim Lewis, Abigail A. Salyers, Harry Taber

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