By James E. Turner

ISBN-10: 3527406069

ISBN-13: 9783527406067

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation safeguard deals pros and complicated scholars a finished assurance of the foremost innovations that underlie the origins and shipping of ionizing radiation in subject. knowing atomic constitution and the actual mechanisms of radiation interactions is the root on which a lot of the present perform of radiological well-being security is predicated. The paintings covers the detection and dimension of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the information. The methods which are used to guard guy and the surroundings from the capability damaging results of radiation are completely defined. uncomplicated rules are illustrated with an abundance of labored examples that exemplify functional functions. Chapters contain challenge units (with partial solutions) and large tables and graphs for persisted use as a reference paintings. This thoroughly revised and enlarged 3rd version contains thorough updates of the cloth, together with the most recent suggestions of the ICRP and NCRP.

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**Example text**

In terms of the speed of light c, the quantity v1 /c = k0 e2 / c ∼ = 1/137 is called the ﬁne-structure constant. Usually denoted by α , it determines the relativistic corrections to the Bohr energy levels, which give rise to a ﬁne structure in the spectrum of hydrogen. 11) showing that the potential energy is twice as large in magnitude as the kinetic energy (virial theorem). 6Z2 = – eV. ] The lowest energy occurs when n = 1. 4 eV. 4 eV for the He+ ion. It remains to calculate the optical spectra for the single-electron systems based on Bohr’s theory.

22) that h . 23) It is often convenient to express the wavelength in Å and the energy in eV. Using these units for λ and T in Eq. 3 λÅ = √ =√ . 25) The subscripts indicate the units for λ and T when this formula is used. An analogous expression can be derived for photons. Since the photon energy is given by E = hν, the wavelength is λ = c/ν = ch/E. Analogously to Eq. 25), we ﬁnd λÅ = 12398 12400 = . 26) Example In some of their experiments, Davisson and Germer used electrons accelerated through a potential difference of 54 V.

Ni > nf ), then from Eqs. 13) where λ is the wavelength of the photon and c is the speed of light. Substituting the numerical values3) of the physical constants, one ﬁnds from Eq. 09737 × 107 Z2 2 – 2 λ nf ni m–1 . 1). The integer 2 in the Balmer formula is interpretable from Bohr’s theory as the quantum number of the orbit into which the electron falls when it emits the photon. Derivation of the Balmer formula and calculation of the Rydberg constant from the known values of e, m, h, and c provided undeniable evidence for the validity of Bohr’s postulates for single-electron atomic systems, although the postulates were totally foreign to classical physics.

### Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection (Physics Textbook) by James E. Turner

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