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Read e-book online An Outline of Atomic Physics. 3rd edition, 2nd printing PDF

By Blackwood O. H., Osgood T. H., Ruark A. E. et. al.

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Additional resources for An Outline of Atomic Physics. 3rd edition, 2nd printing

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E. 1). 2) starts with 2E and reaches E for σ = 0, for reloading the response is the same as for first loading (C). This leads to exaggerated ratcheting for asymmetric σ-cycles. For cyclic deformation hysteresis is obtained which increases smoothly with increasing amplitude (D). 2) relate evolutions of state and shape. The state is characterized by a single scalar variable, viz. the uniaxial stress σ. e. then σ˙ = 0 holds for σ ε˙ > 0. The range | σ |≤ 2c cannot be left by deformations. e. by σ and sgn(σ ε).

Strain paths (Fig. 2b) are only restricted by ε˙v = 0. Deviatoric strain invariants are not needed as they are no state variables. 9) and the strain rate direction angle αε˙ suffice for the kinematics. g. g. 1–3). The related stress path is likewise labelled. It may be straight up to a state limit, and remains there (which means ductility) with further proportional deformation. g. 2–3). g. 2–3 in Fig. 2a). This may also work with a second reversal and with further ones. e. with fixed ασ and αε˙ , stress-strain curves convey the same information as related stress and strain paths.

1). 2) starts with 2E and reaches E for σ = 0, for reloading the response is the same as for first loading (C). This leads to exaggerated ratcheting for asymmetric σ-cycles. For cyclic deformation hysteresis is obtained which increases smoothly with increasing amplitude (D). 2) relate evolutions of state and shape. The state is characterized by a single scalar variable, viz. the uniaxial stress σ. e. then σ˙ = 0 holds for σ ε˙ > 0. The range | σ |≤ 2c cannot be left by deformations. e. by σ and sgn(σ ε).

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An Outline of Atomic Physics. 3rd edition, 2nd printing by Blackwood O. H., Osgood T. H., Ruark A. E. et. al.


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