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Download PDF by D East, G C Margerison: An Introduction to Polymer Chemistry

By D East, G C Margerison

ISBN-10: 0080118917

ISBN-13: 9780080118918

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CHAPTER 2] D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF MOLECULAR WEIGHT THE determination of the molecular weights of polymeric materials presents, in general, two problems not normally encountered with low molecular weight substances. The first problem arises because polymer samples usually contain molecules with a range of molecular weights. The second problem is encountered whenever the physical properties of polymer solutions are studied—the concentration dependence of these properties is usually so much more pronounced than in the case where low molecular weight solutes are used that the well-established methods for molecular weight determination cannot be employed without considerable modification.

Consequently, in order to evaluate this latter quantity, it is only necessary to count the total number of molecules in a known weight of polymer whence the number average molecular weight follows by simple proportion. Thus, if we were to find that 6-023 X1018 molecules were present in 1 g of polymer, the Avogadro number of molecules would be present in 100,000 g of polymer and hence, as we have explained, the number average molecular weight is 100,000. End-group analysis This method of counting the number of polymer molecules present in a known weight of polymer is available when the polymer molecules possess a known number of detectable end groups per molecule.

For example, we write the Avogadro number as 6Ό23Χ10 23 m o l e - 1 and the root mean square end-to-end distance of a particular polymer molecule as 1000 Â rather than 6-023 x 1023 molecule mole - 1 and 1000 Â molecule - 1 . To achieve complete consistency, we write all molecular weights which appear in equations with the units g m o l e - 1 . One final example will suffice; suppose we wish to calculate the weight of a molecule of a particular substance given its molecular weight M and the Avogadro number N0.

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An Introduction to Polymer Chemistry by D East, G C Margerison


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