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Read e-book online An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics PDF

By Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.

ISBN-10: 1107037263

ISBN-13: 9781107037267

ISBN-10: 1107640350

ISBN-13: 9781107640351

This can be an awesome e-book for graduate scholars and researchers attracted to the aerodynamics, structural dynamics, and flight dynamics of small birds, bats, and bugs, in addition to of micro air cars (MAVs), which current many of the richest difficulties intersecting technology and engineering. The agility and wonderful flight functionality of ordinary flyers, due to their versatile, deformable wing buildings in addition to to amazing wing, tail, and physique coordination, is very major. To layout and construct MAVs with functionality such as usual flyers, it's crucial that common flyers' mixed versatile structural dynamics and aerodynamics are properly understood. the first concentration of this e-book is to deal with the hot advancements in flapping wing aerodynamics. This ebook extends the paintings provided in Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds quantity Flyers (Shyy et al. 2008)

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Extra resources for An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics

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1–10) The mass of the limb is denoted by mlimb and it is assumed that the limb has a uniform density. The muscle in action has an angular acceleration, which can be determined as ω˙ = JT l3 ∼ 5 ∼ l −2 . I l (1–11) From Eq. (1–11) it is easy to determine the stroke time scale T, and with the frequency f ∼ T −1 , we get T = ω˙ −1/2 ⇒ f ∝ ω˙ 1/2 . (1–12) 24 Introduction A relation between the body mass m and the maximum wing-beat frequency fw,max can also be derived: fw,max ∼ T −1 ∼ l −1 ∼ m−1/3 .

During steady-speed flight, wing-beat frequency does not change appreciably with horizontal flight speed. Instead, with increasing flight speed the body angle relative to the horizontal decreases, thereby illustrating that the dominant function of wing flapping changes from weight support at slow speeds to positive thrust at fast speeds. Pigeons progressively flex their wings during glides as flight speed increases but never perform bounding. For magpies, the wingspan during glides does not vary with flight speed, but the percentage of bounding among non-flapping intervals increases with speed from 10–14 m/s.

Tobalske and Dial [8] analyzed high-speed (60 Hz) videotapes of black-billed magpies (Pica pica) flying at speeds of 4–14 m/s and of pigeons (Columbia livia) flying at 6–20 m/s in a wind tunnel. Pigeons have higher wing loading and higher aspect ratio wings compared with magpies. Both species alternate phases of steady-speed flight with phases of acceleration and deceleration, particularly at intermediate flight speeds. The birds modulate their wing-beat kinematics among these phases and frequently exhibit non-flapping phases while decelerating.

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An Introduction to Flapping Wing Aerodynamics by Shyy W., Aono H., Kang C.-k., Liu H.

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