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A history of metallurgy by R. F. Tylecote PDF

By R. F. Tylecote

ISBN-10: 1902653793

ISBN-13: 9781902653792

ISBN-10: 1907625895

ISBN-13: 9781907625893

First released in 1976.  moment version released 1992, reprinted in 2002 and 2011. during this booklet Professor Tylecote provides a distinct advent to the heritage of metallurgy from the earliest instances to the current. the advance of metallurgy abilities and strategies of alternative civilisations, and the relationship among them, are rigorously chartered. This quantity is anxious with such vital subject matters because the upward push of metallurgy within the close to East and the commercial Revolution in Western Europe

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Example text

It is therefore better to divide the period into two: the earlier, experimental age, and the later, full Bronze Age. Extractive Techniques While the deposits of arsenical and, to a lesser extent, antimonial copper ores are comparatively common, as shown by their use in early copper objects, tin is not often found together with copper. In fact, tin deposits are something of a rarity. The tin deposits of the world are associated with certain types of granite and occur in only a few well known localities such as Malaya, China, Bolivia, Cornwall, Saxony-Bohemia, and Nigeria.

AD 800 c. ,0·3 1·1 0·15 0·97 1·50 tr 3·81 2·9 4·07 Reference 49 52 110 4 4 106 82 7 107 111 111 3 40 95 97 17 81 - = not sought It is possible to make tin bronze in two ways. The first is by mixing cassiterite with copper and heating to the melting point of bronze under charcoal, when the cassiterite is reduced to tin and absorbed by the copper. The sulphide, stannite, can also be used in this way," The second method is to add metallic tin in the right proportions to molten copper. This supposes that tin has been smelted, and evidence for this is sparse.

0'0 <0'01 tr. 0'0 0'85 0·16 10'0 6'6 "'10'0 21 * El Argar produced 494 'bronze' objects out of 1 450 copper-base objects tr. :; trace Table 16 Analyses of some copper ores and concentrates Element Cu Ag Pb As Sb Zn Fe S Sn Bi Co Ni Si02 Al203 CaO Element Cu Ag Pb As Sb Zn Fe S Sn Bi Co Ni Si02 Al203 CaO Sulphide, Wieda (Harz)! 26·0 1'86 tr. 0'23 24'11 4'16 9-32 34'64 Sulphide, Hu ttenrode 1 34'3 tr. 0'11 2'14 0'02 19'06 38'22 Sulphide, Bocheggiono, ltaly67 Sulphide, Tepe Hissar49 11'2 0-81 0-03 0·06 tr.

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