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A Companion to Applied Ethics - download pdf or read online

By R. G. Frey, Christopher Heath Wellman

ISBN-10: 1405133457

ISBN-13: 9781405133456

Utilized or functional ethics is likely to be the most important development quarter in philosophy this day, and plenty of concerns in ethical, social, and political existence have come lower than philosophical scrutiny lately. Taken jointly, the essays during this quantity – together with review essays on theories of ethics and the character of utilized ethics – supply a state of the art account of the main urgent ethical questions dealing with us this present day.

  • Provides a complete advisor to the various most vital difficulties of functional ethics
  • Offers cutting-edge debts of concerns in scientific, environmental, criminal, social, and enterprise ethics
  • Written via significant philosophers shortly engaged with those advanced and profound moral issues

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Oxford: Blackwell 37 3 P t Riht d Wlf Rditibti JEREMY WALDRON I ll d iti t it it ith b j t t I th U i t d Stt th 1999 fi l t h t th i t l 21 illi fili ith h h l d i i f $100000 d th 16 illi f i l i ith h h l d i l th $ 1 7 0 0 0 M t f th l t t lii i t j d d b ffiil " t li" (tiltd tl b the US authorities as around $ 1 7 5 2 4 per annum for a family of four) Defining poverty is of course difficult and controversial But we may understand it in a h d d l t d i t tht i b f i h h l d t tdl k h d hi bt tifi i d f f thi b (hlt i i l l titi f d bt t bth b i dil hlt bt t bth dil hlt d i i l l triti f d bt t d t lthi d ) P fili th th h d h i d th hih bl th il t t i f ll the needs of all their members and devote an amount to items going well beyond need that would be sufficient if spent differently to satisfy all the basic needs of many many more N dbt h ld b id b t th dfiti M h i l h d il i t i t h d i d f idi b l t dfiti f " t " lid f ll iti d i t (S 1992) Thi i tl b t i dfid i t f d d t t t f d t d t b lti t th i t f i it Wht t b i di ltil b tti lik A r i it iht b d i f f t f ht t b i di l it ( B b k 1987) O i l l it i td tht we should pin down the concept to survival so that we count something as a need only if a person will die without it But even this remains ambiguous How ikely must death be and how imminent?

What characterizes intuitionism in general is the view that there is an irreducible plurality of different right or wrongmaking features whose moral relevance cannot be derived from some more fundamental principle or reasoning but can only be fid b l flti " i t i t i " Thi iht b d ditl h f l it bi flti t h t th f t t h t ti ld t t b t l b k i t t i t it ll O it i thiki b t l i ifi f i t h flt th " t l l b l " it i d t tht i h d allowing it to happen are morally different Another example defended by some deontologists is the "doctrine of double effect" according to which there is a moral difference between causing harm or evil i t d d idfft f i t d d ti li di t d i th h il d i t l ith d t d Th l t h h it i t i b l thi h i t iili di d i ti f l h b b i ilit t t ll b f lti it ld t b t t t kill th b f iili ditl if d i ld d th lbl d f it i i i O i f thi i h i h thi i i l h l d i t t l i th controversial issue of abortion Since abortion aims directly at the death of the fetus it is sometimes argued that it is morally worse than another action would be which caused the fetus's death only as an unintended sideeffect While it might be permis ibl t f dil d tht i t t ' lif t th i k f killi th f t it i d tht b t i ft t th ' lif i ll th l b it i i i i b l t t i l killi D t l i l ititiit h d f d d id it fi d d t i i l d t i f iht ki ft f d t I dditi t the doctrine of double effect and the distinction between "doing and allowing" there have been claimed to be: duties of beneficence or mutual aid duties of non maleficence ("do no harm" along with the idea that these are weightier other thi bi l th dti fb f i ) dti f titd f b l h dti f titti f di j i d dti f fidlit l t i t i d t t dti f l l t i h i (ildi th f f i d t hild fil b d tk ll) f i l dti dti i t d t ( h t l d ) dti f i i t d fi l fth dti fj t i d t i t th i l (t th t t t h t th h 31 STEPHEN L DARWALL tb i l d d l d ) dti t l d i th Of it itionists do not agree about every doctrine or principle not even about all we have mentioned But they are none the less agreed that some such list of independent principles or doctrines is correct and that the principles on the list cannot be derived f f d t l i i l th h t t l i tili Bth i t i t i i t d t t l i t d t l i t h l d t h t th i h t i R l ' h " i t th d" ( R l 1971 3 0 3 ) Th b l i tht t t t t di th i h t f t t l t l i b d t fil i th ti f h t it i i h t t d i tht f t f l ithi the world defined by a complex set of relations to others who make widely varying claims on us owing to these different relations What states of affairs would be good to exist considered as from some agentneutral observer's standpoint may f there h l b th idti tht l t t ht l t h l d d Bt dti d d l ithi th t t b iht t l t ifll th i d lti t d i d tht ti bi t t d i t th t d tit t t t t th h i t i f th ith h i t t d Many of these relations were listed in passing above but we should have them before us more explicitly We cannot begin to exhaust them but it will be helpful to give some idea of their range (1) Dti f bf d lf Lik tilit d t l i t bli tht h ti f f t th d f th (th t l t d h th b i h h lf d) l h l t ht hld d ll B t th l i i t j t t h t th lbl d i l b l t t t It l tt ht t d t lti h t th f f t d ti ( d ht l ti ti bi t h ) H i th i ( ij d t the other) other things being equal than forbearing to benefit It is not ust the causing of a disvaluable state; it is doing harm to some being Doing harm is worse also than failing to prevent it And directly intending harm is worse than causing it i t d d idfft (2) Dti f il Vi i l lti f tki i i t il bliti fb f i Th t h bliti t t th lf f thi hild tht h t th th d t i fb f h t th i l Ad i i l l f t t d th lti f ilid h d t t h d h ibl f t h i tients' or students' medical or educational welfare (3) Duties of honesty and fidelity Obligations not to lie or intentionally mislead to keep promises not to violate contracts and more generally not to encourage tti i t d t t t ll fit d th l t f k i fith d t ilti t t V i l l t i h i lik th f f i d l d b l d d thi bi ll (4) Dti dii f t' d t i t ' hiti f dt Wh d ij th i d t i t th t k l d flt d ff titti ( t f l t ) Wh th bfit i dti f titd t d th 32 THEORIES OF ETHICS {patient-benevolence) A ' t d t ll f it sponse especially from those who have special responsibilities to respond appropri ately to merit and desert such as judges of various kinds (patient desert) (5) Duties of reciprocity and fair play There is a duty to do one's part in mutually d t ti ill h l t i l t ti bfit C t t i / t t l i t thi d t f d t l F titi i t it i i l i d d t l i t t dt th fth dti fjti d i f litil (6) Further duties of justice V i lti f l f tht f l itihi H h dti t t j t litil d tht tblih d t t b i iht d hi distributive justice Where actual political relations are lacking as in the nter national context justice may require that we do our part to help establish ustice more widely through more extensive political forms i dti d d l lti I (7) Duties to other species H dditi t d t i fb f d lfi i i l bli ti t b f ti i i t hit fi t t i ith th E if th i l t b fll t i ti h i d t i t th i t th i hih h i l d th i lives and ourselves in theirs Pets are an obvious example but no less significant may be cases where species are themselves shaped and cultivated for human pur poses in ways that give them special needs and vulnerabilities Thi l i t i i hdl h t i It h l d b b i t thi it h t h t th d i i f i t l ill i i t b l i l t j t i l i i l iht ki idti bt l bi ti f i i l idti Si ititiiti d t l j t th id tht hi i i l id f i it i t f h i h th i i l idti iht b i t t d iitid h d i t i t i i t bli t h t th b i f l flti i t d thinking about concrete cases?

From a moral point of view this seems entirely arbitrary unless some background theory of natural rights is assumed And contractarianism 't j t i f that ti i it l f ld h l d t d d it Thi bl f th d i t i if id h idiidl iht tf l f i t t d til i t t t i l i If h t i t f h i d d t i t t th f itti i h i h th tblihd l f ti h ill t h i k it rational to bargain to an agreement with others to be bound by certain rules But how can this give her a reason actually to follow the rules? The reasons of nterest she has for agreeing to follow the rules can't give her a reason actually to follow th i th hl it df t i f l f ti i t h t th constrain h it f h i t t F h t b bl t th l i h t l d t l f ti It b tht it i i h i t t t b h d t t t i l f ti bt hil thi ld i h t want t t th l l for these reasons.

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A Companion to Applied Ethics by R. G. Frey, Christopher Heath Wellman


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